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Affecting up to15% of the population, (primarily in the 40-70 age group), Plantar Fasciitis was formerly known as Plantar Heel Spur Syndrome. It is now generally accepted that Plantar Heel Spurs (evident on X-Ray) are NOT a cause of pain (it has been established that around 30% of the population in the 40-70 age group have Plantar Heel Spurs on X-Ray-without any associated pain). The actual cause of the pain, (which is often in exactly the same area as the spur) is the damaged/torn Plantar Fascial attachments at their insertions into the Calcaneus/heel bone, (evident under Ultrasound as a thickened Plantar Fascia).
As previously mentioned, the Plantar Fascia is a long, wide band of fibrous, connective tissue that runs nearly the entire length of the bottom of the foot. Its function is to support, strengthen and reinforce the foot and the arch, and also to provide shock absorption for the foot.
Excessive and repetitive strain on the Plantar Fascia can cause micro-tearing or actual tears to occur in the heel/arch area, leading to inflammation and pain. This acute (inflammatory) form of Plantar Fasciitis, can then develop into a more chronic (degenerative) form if it doesn't resolve within a period of 10-14 weeks or so. Fortunately, about 60 % of new, acute cases will settle and resolve within this time period of approximately a few months, however, those that don't and then turn into chronic cases often require much more comprehensive and tailored treatment to overcome them, which can take several weeks or even months for full healing and pain relief to be realised.
The pain of Plantar Fasciitis is often only experienced first thing out of bed in the morning, and/or upon rising after a prolonged period off your feet (start-up pain). This can quickly progress, however, to a more constant pain throughout the day, particularly during and/or after long periods on one’s feet. The level of pain experienced by sufferers can also vary greatly from case to case, (depending on the nature and extent of the damage to the fibres that make up the Fascia) - from mild discomfort, right through to debilitating, relentless pain.
The excessive strain which brings about Plantar Fasciitis can be caused by a repetitive, overuse type of movement, (eg: too much standing, walking, running) OR it may be brought about by one specific incident (eg: landing heavily or awkwardly on your feet). Tension on the Plantar Fascia may also be greatly increased by a myriad of different environmental, biomechanical, and other factors. Hard, flat, modern-day surfaces, certain activities such as running and jumping, extended periods on one’s feet, inadequate footwear, tight calves, inefficient foot and lower limb biomechanics (mainly overpronation - a foot that rolls inwards too much) are all leading contributing factors. In fact, research and studies show that the vast majority of long-term/chronic Plantar Fasciitis sufferers have inefficient foot structures/lower limb biomechanics, which are simply unable to cope with the demands of weight-bearing on hard, flat, modern-day surfaces, such as concrete, tiles, and asphalt.
Plantar Fasciitis induced by a repetitive strain (ie: simply by the action of too much standing, walking or running for example) is far more prevalent, harder to resolve, and much more likely to become chronic/degenerative/longstanding than Plantar Fasciitis which has been caused by a specific incident. When you first acquire the symptoms of Plantar Fasciitis, there is no way of really knowing how long you will have it for. Research has shown that the longer you endure it for, or defer treatment, the longer it can take to resolve.
Our tailored treatment plans (whether for acute or chronic Plantar Fasciitis), are based on our 3 fundamental principles to heal your heel (Plantar Fascia):
A combination of all three will give the best chance of complete healing and staying permanently pain free.
With Heal My Heel you can do just that!
Also known as Calcaneal Apophysitis, Sever's Disease affects about 15% of children in the 7 - 15 age group. The growth plate inside the heel bone/Calcaneus is responsible for the bone's growth and development. The Calcaneus fully matures and stops growing in girls at an average age of 12 and boys around 14.
Sever's is triggered by a kind of disruption to the growth plate which is exacerbated by certain activities, (running and jumping in particular). The consequent inflammation and pain is often not experienced until well after the commencement of the activity (up to an hour), and often then lasts for some time after its completion before settling down (hours to days). It can also become significantly more painful once the activity is completed and the area "cools down". The strain on the Achilles Tendon pulling and twisting on the back of the heel during certain weightbearing activities (especially running/jumping) is responsible for the irritation and inflammation of the growth plate inside the bone.
The pain associated with Sever's can often be linked to periods of accelerated growth ("growth spurts"), and therefore pain is often felt intermittently over the period of development of the Calcaneus bone (several years).
Other contributing factors are hard, flat surfaces (this can include very firm grass areas), inadequate footwear, tight calves, and inefficient foot structures/lower limb biomechanics (mainly overpronation - a foot that rolls inwards too much). Treatment for Sever's is really a case of managing the pain rather than "healing" it as such. This is because it is a "growing pain" which inevitably must run its course. The symptoms of Sever's can last anywhere from days to several years (although usually they would be intermittent over this period). The pain and symptoms of Sever's, however, (even if debilitating), can be effectively managed and significantly reduced, if the contributing factors and causes are addressed and dealt with.
Heal My Heel's management of Sever's Disease is based on our 3 fundamental principles for treatment:
A combination of all three will give the best chance of reducing the pain and inflammation as much as possible, while still allowing the sufferer to participate in sporting activities.
With Heal My Heel you can do just that!
Back of the heel
Retrocalcaneal Bursitis/Subcutaneous Calcaneal Bursitis:
Bursas are fluid filled cushioned sacs found all over the body where tendons insert into bone. They aid in a smoother gliding mechanism for the tendon and can become irritated by trauma or overuse. This causes inflammation and pain and is known as Bursitis. Heel Bursitis often occurs concurrently with Achilles Tendinitis/Tendinopathy.
Retrocalcaneal Spur (Haglund's Deformity):
A bone spur that forms over time on the back of the heel bone (as seen on X-Ray) and often occurring concurrently with a Subcutaneous Calcaneal Bursitis and Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy (forming the triad of symptoms known as Haglund's Deformity). The spur itself doesn't generally cause any pain as such, unless as a result of friction and pressure from footwear.
bottom of the heel
Caused through sudden trauma to the bone or a stress fracture due to overuse (mainly in runners). Often causes extreme pain, swelling and heat.
Sometimes associated with Planar Fasciitis and caused by micro-fractures at the insertion of the Plantar Fascia to the Calcaneus causing swelling of the marrow inside the bone. Can often cause extreme pain, swelling and heat.
Bruising or atrophy of the Fat Pad:
Trauma to the heel or loss of the normal cushioning provided by the Plantar Fat Pad can lead to bruising which can even extend to the bone and the bone lining. Atrophy is often linked to the ageing process and the type of bruising caused by repetitive trauma is often seen in runners.
Plantar Calcaneal Spur:
Not generally a cause of pain, but once upon a time was thought to cause the pain that we now know as Plantar Fasciitis. Evident through X-Ray in about 30% of the population.
sides of the heel
Baxter's Nerve Entrapment:
Entrapment of the first branch of the Lateral Plantar Nerve causing pain millimetres above the medial (inner) edge of the heel, directly below the inner ankle. Often occurs simultaneously with longstanding cases of Plantar Fasciitis.
Tarsel Tunnel Syndrome:
Entrapment of the Tibial Nerve often causing pain, tingling and/or burning just behind and below the inside ankle.
Posterior Tibial Tendon Disorders:
Pain from stress to this tendon is usually felt just below the inside ankle, and sometimes a little higher also.
Peroneal Tendon Disorders:
Pain from stress to these tendons can be felt just below the outside ankle, and can extend further along the outer edge of the foot.